Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities made to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource, to protect the water environment, and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.
The goals of water conservation efforts include:
Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate.
Energy conservation as water pumping, delivery and waste water treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management.
Habitat conservation where minimizing human water use helps to preserve freshwater habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, but also water quality.